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Olivares Find articles by Pedro R. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: Received Apr 24; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Requests for the data can be made here: Abstract Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect RAE.
The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance
This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status SESand type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15, 8th graders All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created.
Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit.
Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the performance.
Conclusions The RAE remains, even with residual values, an explanatory factor in academic performance even in eighth graders. Since the RAE decreases as the influence of schooling increases, the potential adverse effects for some students would be placed in previous and initial moments of formal schooling.
These findings may be useful into taking steps towards flexibilisation on age of entry in compulsory schooling. Moreover, the need to implement early, comprehensive evaluation systems which include aspects related to neurodevelopment in order to provide maximum information to parents and educators is also drawn. Introduction The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. In general, students who are born within the same calendar year are grouped in the same course [ 1 ].
This measure seeks for students to have the minimum possible differences among them.
In Spain, for example, students are grouped according to the calendar year from January 1 to December In Britain, England, and Wales, students born between September 1 and August 31 of the following year are grouped in the same course. This generates differences of up to one year of age in children with the same chronological age in addition to differences in biological age due to different maturation rhythms of students. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect RAE [ 23 ].
Most published studies on RAE and study samples on academic performance come from Britain [ 4 ], Norway [ 56 ], Belgium [ 7 ], or the United States [ 8 ]. Regardless of the differences between these studies, such as age of the participants, different backgrounds, students with special educational needs, and different sample sizes, the trend is that younger students within the school year will face more difficulties than relatively older students. This effect is more important the younger the student is, but it reverses when reaching higher education [ 9 ].
Several studies have attempted to explain this phenomenon, although inconsistencies in their results have been found. Medical reasons have been hypothesised [ 8 ] in which children born in winter are more deficient in vitamin D and are subsequently discarded [ 10 ]; the total time of schooling [ 11 ] has been considered when some students spend more time in school than others, also with unequal results [ 12 ].
At the moment, the hypothesis that has proved to be more reasonable is the RAE [ 7 ]. The month of birth has been considered decisive in explaining school performance as well as the retention rates of students with specific learning difficulties [ 8 ]. The progressive development of neuropsychological functions, such as attention, perception, or memory, as well as those more related to process control and cognitive self-regulation, have established important differences, especially near the age of compulsory school entrance.
These differences appear to be a key factor in relation to possible decisions concerning both entry into the school system and grade repeating or possible implementation of compensatory measures [ 13 ].
Among the possible repercussions RAE could bring, one we can mention is teachers expecting less of their younger students due to their worse academic and social performance because of their later development. In this sense, the effect of lower expectations from teachers towards those who initially reported a lower degree of maturity reinforces a worse performance by those mentioned [ 14 ].
In addition, explanations of teachers are usually performed at the average level of the class, making it more difficult for younger students to understand and, therefore, more learning opportunities are lost [ 7 ]. From different explanatory models, developmental psychology has tried to respond to the psychological changes that occur in the development process.
One of the reasons that could explain this relationship between age and psychological changes would be in maturation [ 15 ]. Among the characteristics that define the human species is birth itself, which comprises a high degree of structural and functional immaturity which progressively, and following a certain maturation calendar, gives way to a greater degree of maturity.
In this sense, maturation seems to follow a more fixed and predictable sequence in the early stages of the life cycle, giving way later to other influences such as culture, the historical moment, or the social group they belong to. Thus emerges a description of development based on stages that determines the appearance of certain achievements in general but does not clearly specify a relationship with education or culture.
Although the RAE is not specifically addressed, it is understood from these models that the individual differences within a stage would be given by differences in the rates of maturation together with those from different experiences or learning opportunities.
However, some evidence questions this thesis. In this sense, the acquisition of the same general cognitive structure e.
Also, the process of constructing certain functions appears to be related to the cultural importance given to these same functions [ 16 ]. For its part, from historical—cultural psychology, development is understood as a result of the appropriation of the elements and unique context clues of the cultural reference in which the individual is inserted [ 17 ].
From this perspective, education becomes a factor of development, and different forms of cultural mediation become the psychological instruments through which this occurs [ 18 ]. Psychological changes arise from the acquisition of new forms of cultural mediation, which in turn allow us to interpret and interact with the world in a qualitatively different way.
From this perspective, it is understood that the development of higher functions, among which would be the logical reasoning, reading, writing, arithmetic operations, or strategic memory, is fundamentally a cultural development. However, within these models, it is also assumed that the construction of higher functions would be sustained on the basis of neuropsychological development and, more specifically, on the development of the neocortical brain structures both from a phylogenetic perspective and in terms of ontogenesis [ 1920 ].
In relation to socio-cultural factors, one of the most studied variables on education relative to academic performance is socioeconomic status SES [ 21 ]. Currently, SES includes factors such as the level of education of the mother and father, family income, and family structure. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level.
Furthermore, Apondi; in Siaya District, Kenya showed that lack of parental guidance affected the orphans in schools implying that orphan hood was an issue that required special attention in schools as Orphans were affected by a number of issues including high dropout rate, absenteeism, malnutrition, low self-esteem and lack of confidence which were directly linked to academic achievement of these children.
The study also found out that there were inadequate children's homes with inadequate facilities to take care of the needs of the orphans. Most of the children orphaned by AIDS have been taken in by extended family members.
However, the large number of orphaned and vulnerable children is overwhelming this traditional copying mechanism. Elderly female caretakers or children themselves are heading many of these households and with no income, they lack resources needed to support these additional children and provide essential food, clothing and school fees. The result from this reports show that children are involved in extracurricular activities at younger age and this can influence their cognitive development as well as consuming their schooling time and therefore influencing their academic achievement.
The Social cognitive theory was relevant in the present study in that orphans are generally affected especially when they lose their loved parents and therefore they need to be motivated in order to carry on with life and more so education.
Orphan hood is a state in life that when not taken care of properly then the orphaned child can begin portraying antisocial behaviors that may have a negative impact on their lives. Moreover, just as Bandura ; stated that motivation in classroom is very key to performance likewise these children need to be motivated in order to perform.
Denlinger reported that, self-perception of having good time-management skills proved to have a direct correlation to performance levels. Sevil and Necati indicated a significant and positive relation between time planning and time consumers and the academic achievement of the students; there was a low and positive relation between time consumers and academic achievement; there was a meaningful and moderate relation between time management and academic achievement.
Similarly, Kelly results support the positive correlation between judicious time management, academic performance, and GPA. Brint and Cantwellthere was no direct correlation found, in this particular study, between engaging in campus life activities and increased educational benefits. Junco and Cottonfound that these technologies have been an interruption because students spend much time using them while doing schoolwork, thereby fractioning their concentration and limiting absorption of new material.
Ugwulashi from Nigeria emphasized that proper time management facilitates qualitative teaching and learning in accomplishing educational goals and objectives. Fakude, indicated that most participants were affected by external factors as compared to their internal locus of control.
Swart, Lomberd and Jager indicated no statistically significant relationship between time management skills and the academic achievement of African engineering students. Chandi, Ndiritu, Kidombo, Mbwesa and Keiyoro indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic. The present study investigated the relationship between time management and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students in Bondo Sub-county of Kenya.
It is expected that performance of orphans and non orphans to be at par. Due to this expectation, there are commitments in education sector to improve performance of all students in secondary schools including free secondary education in Kenya.
From the trends of the performance of the orphaned children in Siaya County, the above results indicate that they perform much lower than the other students who have both parents.
This performance is a drop compared to KCSE exams where However, this decreasing trend in performance among orphans is worrying and requires special attention.
This poor performance is attributable to the fact that orphans are at risk of losing their learning time especially when involved in child labor activities, furthermore, lack of parental guidance affects the orphans in schools implying that orphan hood is an issue that requires special attention in schools.
The present study investigated the relationship between time management and academic performance among orphaned secondary school students of Kenya.
Research Methodology The study used ex-post-facto research design. It is also commonly used when facts have already occurred Kerlinger and Rint Ex-post-facto research design is used in this study because, the children were already orphaned, existing examination results were used, and the fact that the effects and causes of differences between the two groups of children orphans and non orphans had already occurred.
The sample constituted orphaned secondary school children and 7 head teachers chosen through saturated and simple random sampling respectively. This study picked seven schools at random from which the 7 head teachers were used as respondents as recommended by Jwan The questionnaire adopted the Likert scale method whereby respondents had to respond to every statement using a structured format: Always, Sometimes, Rarely and Never.
Expert advice was sought from the supervisors and other lecturers in the Department of Psychology and Educational foundation, who examined the items of the instruments and gave professional advice that, found a basis for the modification and improvement of the questionnaires.
A correlation was determined between time management and academic achievement. For example, when the p-value obtained was less than 0. To address this research objective, two questionnaires were carefully developed; the first one was to measure the level of time management and the second questionnaire was investigating the elements of self-regulation factors among the orphaned secondary school children.
To do this a correlation analysis was conducted. The set scores on the time management were used as the independent variable while scores from self-regulation factors was used as the explanatory variable dependant variable. On the level of time management among the orphaned secondary school children, the researcher designed a questionnaire to collect views of the respondents on the same. The respondents were asked to score on each statement based on their perception on the statement in regard to time management.
The researcher computed percentage frequencies of the responses from the students and was tabulated as shown in Table 1 while the results of the correlation are presented in table 2. From the findings in the table 1, Moreover, the findings are in agreement to the words echoed by Ugwulashi who emphasized that students always do things in order of priority. Percentage responses on items of time management The results showed that On the contrary, Sorry to say that Denlinger who emphasized that majority of the students do not plan well for the academic studies.
The findings are in agreement to the sentiments echoed by Sevil and Necati who found out that student behavior in the category of time planning was at the highest level and behavior in the category of time consumers was at the lowest level and that the success of the students was above average.
There was a significant and positive relation between time planning and time consumers and the academic achievement of the students; there was a low and positive relation between time consumers and academic achievement; there was a meaningful and moderate relation between time management and academic achievement. This implies that The findings are in agreement to the words echoed by Swart, Lomberd and Jager who found out that poor academic success by African engineering students is currently experienced in many higher educational institutions, contributing to lower financial subsidies by local governments.
From the study, it was also established that It was worth to note that majority of the students always; Sadly to note that 3. The results are in agreement to the findings by Denlinger who emphasized that to improve academic performance among college students, self-attitudes and participation in activities that keep schedules busy will help enforce the principle influence; time management practices.
The findings are also in agreement to the findings by Fakude, who indicated that most participants were affected by external factors as compared to their internal locus of control.
Some of the factors that were found to be negatively related to academic achievement are: This provides room for social interaction which in one way or the other benefit the students. On the other hand, The results are consistent to the findings by Brint and Cantwell who found that physical exercise and participating in volunteer work have a strong influence on academic awareness. There was no direct correlation found, in this particular study, between engaging in campus life activities and increased educational benefits.
The biggest obstacle to positive academic performance, however, was found to be holding an off-campus job. Those students who spent significant time working for pay suffered with lower GPAs. Apparently some activities are better suited to strong academic performance than others. The results showed that It was also realized that more than half These findings are in agreement to the sentiments echoed by Denlinger who established students that perceive themselves as having good time management skills were the students who were more involved and had a high desire to achieve, resulting in a higher level of performance.
Similarly, Kelly found that efficient use of time is directly associated with increased academic performance and achievement. Moreover, the findings are in agreement to the words echoed by Ugwulashi who emphasized that proper time management facilitates qualitative teaching and learning in accomplishing educational goals and objectives.
It started with an overview of time, definition of time and time management, application of time management in school administration, scheduling of activities and time tabling process.
The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance
This was consistent to 4. The result has also found out that Their counterparts were in the same agreement where It was important to note that most of the students always; The findings concurs to the findings by Muola whose words indicated that circumstances or other people's priorities including parental encouragement do not influenced actions made by the students.
The findings are consistent to other studies by Denlinger who affirms that the self-perception of having good time-management skills proved to have a direct correlation to performance levels.