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Messina earthquake - Wikipedia

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Prior to the development of strong-motion accelerometers that can measure peak ground speed and acceleration directly, the intensity of the earth-shaking was estimated on the basis of the observed effects, as categorized on various seismic intensity scales. Only in the last century has the source of such shaking been identified as ruptures in the earth's crust, with the intensity of shaking at any locality dependent not only on the local ground conditions, but also on the strength or magnitude of the rupture, and on its distance.

Subsequent scales see seismic magnitude scales have retained a key feature, where each unit represents a ten-fold difference in the amplitude of the ground shaking, and a fold difference in energy.

Subsequent scales are also adjusted to have approximately the same numeric value within the limits of the scale.

Earthquake - Wikipedia

Aboutof these can be felt. The Messina earthquake and tsunami took as many aslives on December 28, in Sicily and Calabria.

As a result, many more earthquakes are reported than in the past, but this is because of the vast improvement in instrumentation, rather than an increase in the number of earthquakes.

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The United States Geological Survey estimates that, sincethere have been an average of 18 major earthquakes magnitude 7. However, accurate recordings of earthquakes only began in the early s, so it is too early to categorically state that this is the case.

Induced seismicity While most earthquakes are caused by movement of the Earth's tectonic plateshuman activity can also produce earthquakes.

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Four main activities contribute to this phenomenon: Newcastle, Australia was built over a large sector of coal mining areas. The earthquake has been reported to be spawned from a fault that reactivated due to the millions of tonnes of rock removed in the mining process. Seismic magnitude scales and Seismology The instrumental scales used to describe the size of an earthquake began with the Richter magnitude scale in the s.

It is a relatively simple measurement of an event's amplitude, and its use has become minimal in the 21st century. Seismic waves travel through the Earth's interior and can be recorded by seismometers at great distances. The surface wave magnitude was developed in the s as a means to measure remote earthquakes and to improve the accuracy for larger events. The moment magnitude scale measures the amplitude of the shock, but also takes into account the seismic moment total rupture area, average slip of the fault, and rigidity of the rock.

The Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scalethe Medvedev—Sponheuer—Karnik scaleand the Mercalli intensity scale are based on the observed effects and are related to the intensity of shaking. Every tremor produces different types of seismic waves, which travel through rock with different velocities: Longitudinal P-waves shock- or pressure waves Transverse S-waves both body waves Surface waves — Rayleigh and Love waves Propagation velocity of the seismic waves ranges from approx.

In the Earth's interior the shock- or P waves travel much faster than the S waves approx. The differences in travel time from the epicenter to the observatory are a measure of the distance and can be used to image both sources of quakes and structures within the Earth.

Also, the depth of the hypocenter can be computed roughly. As a consequence, the first waves of a distant earthquake arrive at an observatory via the Earth's mantle. On average, the kilometer distance to the earthquake is the number of seconds between the P and S wave times 8.

By such analyses of seismograms the Earth's core was located in by Beno Gutenberg. S waves and later arriving surface waves do main damage compared to P waves. P wave squeezes and expands material in the same direction it is traveling. S wave shakes the ground up and down and back and forth. The world is divided into Flinn—Engdahl regions F-E regionswhich are based on political and geographical boundaries as well as seismic activity.

More active zones are divided into smaller F-E regions whereas less active zones belong to larger F-E regions. Standard reporting of earthquakes includes its magnitudedate and time of occurrence, geographic coordinates of its epicenterdepth of the epicenter, geographical region, distances to population centers, location uncertainty, a number of parameters that are included in USGS earthquake reports number of stations reporting, number of observations, etc.

A tsunami overwhelms the ships in the harbor. The effects of earthquakes include, but are not limited to, the following: Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures.

The severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake magnitudethe distance from the epicenterand the local geological and geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave propagation. Specific local geological, geomorphological, and geostructural features can induce high levels of shaking on the ground surface even from low-intensity earthquakes.

This effect is called site or local amplification.

2016 Ecuador earthquake

It is principally due to the transfer of the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft superficial soils and to effects of seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of the deposits.

Ground rupture is a visible breaking and displacement of the Earth's surface along the trace of the fault, which may be of the order of several meters in the case of major earthquakes.

Ground rupture is a major risk for large engineering structures such as damsbridges and nuclear power stations and requires careful mapping of existing faults to identify any which are likely to break the ground surface within the life of the structure. Landslide Earthquakes, along with severe storms, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and wildfires, can produce slope instability leading to landslides, a major geological hazard.

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Landslide danger may persist while emergency personnel are attempting rescue. In the event of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop the spread of a fire once it has started. For example, more deaths in the San Francisco earthquake were caused by fire than by the earthquake itself.

Soil liquefaction Soil liquefaction occurs when, because of the shaking, water-saturated granular material such as sand temporarily loses its strength and transforms from a solid to a liquid. Soil liquefaction may cause rigid structures, like buildings and bridges, to tilt or sink into the liquefied deposits. For example, in the Alaska earthquakesoil liquefaction caused many buildings to sink into the ground, eventually collapsing upon themselves. Tsunami Tsunamis are long-wavelength, long-period sea waves produced by the sudden or abrupt movement of large volumes of water—including when an earthquake occurs at sea.

Its historical centre was eradicated and the monumental Aragonese Castle, one of the few edifices to have survived the earthquake, was badly damaged. With the exception of one mansion, all the structures in its principal thoroughfare Corso Garibaldi were destroyed including the Cathedral, municipal buildings and palazzi.

Only about 50 houses remained standing in Reggio. The injured in the two cities had no medical support or medicine until outside relief arrived and hospital tents were set up. Most of Messina's officials were killed or gravely injured, along with almost the entire police force [44] and soldiers of the garrison who perished when their respective barracks collapsed.

Troops were soon sent to the city and martial law was declared by General Feira Di Cossatto. Many of the edifices had four or five storeys. Rail lines in the area had been destroyed, often along with the railway stations. Giolitti imposed martial law with all looters to be shot, which extended to survivors foraging for food. With the help of the Red Cross and sailors of the Russian and British fleets, search and cleanup were expedited.

The Russian battleships Tsesarevichand Slava and the cruisers Admiral Makarovand BogatyrBritish battleship Exmouth and the cruisers EuryalusMinervaand Sutlej were ordered to provide assistance; the SS Afonwen was in Messina harbor during the quake anchored in 45 fathoms 80 m of water, but there were only 30 fathoms 55 m when she sailed full of refugees.

Other nations' ships also responded. Initially, authorities adopted a plan to demolish the remaining structures of Messina and transfer the city and its port elsewhere in Sicily but this was discarded after strong protests from the Messinesi.

San Ranieri lighthouse, Forte del Santissimo SalvatoreGiovanni Montorsoli 's Fountain of Neptune [52] and the Barbera spinning mill which was later converted to a museum to house the art treasures salvaged from the ruins. The 16th-century Church of Ringo in the fisherman's quarter of the same name along the northern Messina riviera withstood the shock and survives to date. The "Scalinata Santa Barbara" in the ancient quarter of Tirone and many of the houses known as " le mignuni" in local dialect, located in the slum of Avignone also survived relatively intact.

The new city of Messina was constructed on the rubble of the old city using the plan of a modern layout of a "city regularly cut up like a checker board" with buildings of uniform size and height as presented in by architect Luigi Borzi.

This necessitated the demolition of a number of edifices that were salvageable but did not conform to the new urban plan. Relocation[ edit ] In the wake of the earthquake many of the homeless residents of Messina and Calabria were relocated to various parts of Sicily and other regions of mainland Italy.

Others, including the majority of the survivors from the poverty-stricken Avignone quarter of Messina, were forced to emigrate to America. He spent most of his childhood in Guatemala Citywhere he began his musical instruction.

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They separated in As ofArjona was dating Venezuelan model Daisy Arvelo, with whom he has a child. Until recently, he held the record for the most points scored 78 in a single game by a Guatemalan.

This earned him a visit from a Ministry of Education representative, who was sent to evaluate his pupils. The representative found that the students' education was actually above average.

The label attempted to portray Arjona as a stereotypical Latin lover. This album failed to chart, but received moderate praise from critics, with Allmusic awarding it three stars out of five.

Reaching a Starwhich assisted him in becoming a known singer throughout Latin America. The song became a hit, reaching No. Animal Nocturno, Arjona's fourth studio album, was released in The album contained the hit singles "Mujeres" No.

He confirmed his reputation with the release of his fifth studio album, Historias. The album sold 2 million copies throughout Latin America and received twenty-seven platinum and two diamond certifications, [9] including quadruple Platinum in Argentina. Historias was a career-defining success for Arjona. This was the first album in which Arjona ventured beyond the theme of love to explore nationalism and globalizationamong other sociopolitical topics.

It produced the hit "Desnuda", which became his first No. On "Mesias" Arjona talks about a character who appears "in the form of a wealthy, well-armed magnate with [ Critical reception for the album was mixed. Birchmeier noted that it was "a misleading entry point into Arjona's catalog.